Published: January 29, 2020

Palmer, M. L., Keown, L. J., Sanders, M. R., & Henderson, M. (2019). Enhancing outcomes of low-intensity parenting groups through sufficient exemplar training: A randomized control trial. Child Psychiatry & Human Development50(3), 384-399.


Melanie Palmer, Louise Keown, Matthew Sanders, and Marion Henderson.


Low-intensity parenting groups, such as the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program Discussion Groups, appear to be a cost-effective intervention for child conduct problems. Several studies evaluating a Triple P Discussion Group on disobedience found promising results for improving child and parent outcomes. However, a sufficient exemplar training approach that incorporates generalization promotion strategies may assist parents to more flexibly apply positive parenting principles to a broader range of child target behaviors and settings, leading to greater change. We compared the effects of sufficient exemplar training to an existing narrowly focused low-intensity intervention. Participants were 78 families with a 5–8 year-old child. Sufficient exemplar training resulted in more robust changes in child behavior and superior outcomes for mothers on measures of parenting behavior, parenting self-efficacy, mental health, and perceptions of partner support at post-intervention and 6-month follow-up. These results indicate that teaching sufficient exemplars may promote generalization leading to enhanced intervention outcomes.